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There are many aspects to medicine included in the show.

Illnesses and Conditions

A.L.I.E.'s residual code

After being freed from A.L.I.E.'s control using an EMP in "Nevermore" and "Perverse Instantiation (Part 2)" respectively, Raven Reyes and Abigail Griffin are left with remnants of the AI's code in their head. Raven compares using an EMP to free them to pulling the plug on a computer to shut it off, resulting in the leftover code. This increases their brain function and Raven's intelligence. Both Raven and Abby have visions suggesting a possible degree of precognition as Raven sees the rocket on Becca's Island before actually learning of its existence and Abby has visions of a radiation-burned Clarke. As time goes on, the condition causes seizures and hallucinations and eventually death as the code is too much for the human brain to handle long-term.

In "Demons," Raven discovers the first indication of this condition, or rather the beneficial aspects of it, when she can understand the programming code in Becca Franko's notebook which is not a programing language that Raven was ever taught.

In "The Other Side," a hallucination of Jacapo Sinclair convinces Raven, nearly about to give up for good, to try to find a solution. With the help of Sinclair, Raven realizes that "rebooting" her brain would purge the code, but would require her heart to be stopped for 15 minutes. Raven devises a way to use an ice bath to freeze and revive herself while preserving her brain function. The treatment works, purging the code and ending Raven's seizures and hallucinations, but also restoring her intellect to normal.

In "The Chosen," Raven informs Abby of the treatment and states that it worked: her seizures have stopped and her brain is healing. Raven intends to perform the same treatment on Abby when she gets to the Second Dawn Bunker, but she never gets the chance to.

In "Red Queen," Eric Jackson grows concerned when Abby gets headaches as she took the ice bath treatment which was supposed to stop them.

In "The Blood of Sanctum," its revealed that Raven retains the hacking skills that she got while having A.L.I.E.'s code in her head despite it all being long-since purged.

Flu

Influenza, commonly known as the Flu, is an infectious disease with the most common symptoms being high fever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle and joint pain, headache, coughing and feeling tired.[1]

In "The 48," John Murphy reveals to Raven Reyes that when he was a child, he got the flu and his father stole medicine that it turns out wouldn't have helped anyway to treat him. Murphy recovered, but his father got floated for the theft, causing his mother to turn to alcoholism and blame Murphy for his father's death before she drank herself to death.

PTSD

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, also known as PTSD, is a condition caused by experiencing a particularly traumatic event. Symptoms may include disturbing thoughts, feelings, or dreams related to the events, mental or physical distress to trauma-related cues, attempts to avoid trauma-related cues, alterations in how a person thinks and feels, and an increase in the fight-or-flight response. These symptoms last for more than a month after the event.[2]

After being speared in the chest in "Pilot" and nearly dying, Jasper Jordan shows signs of PTSD in "Murphy's Law," being reluctant to leave the safety of the Delinquents' Camp. He continues to battle PTSD throughout the first and second seasons.

Clarke Griffin suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder from her father's death, causing her to have a deep desire to save everyone because she couldn’t save her father. She also suffers PTSD from the deaths of many people she cares for and the Mountain Men. Because of this, starting at the beginning of Season One, Clarke has shown signs of her rude, arrogant, and aggressive behavior, due to her PTSD. After six years of near-isolation due to the Second Nuclear Apocalypse, Clarke became ruthless and single-minded in her desire to protect Madi, siding with Paxton McCreary and the Eligius Prisoners to fight against Octavia, suggesting that the PTSD had made her darker, though Clarke became remorseful of the actions that she did.

Other characters suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress disorder from all the events that have happened.

In "Etherea," a Disciple experiences PTSD from witnessing the explosion in "Welcome to Bardo" that apparently killed Bellamy Blake. As Levitt treats the Disciple using M-Cap, he discovers that Bellamy was instead blown backwards through the Temporal Anomaly and is in fact still alive.

In "The Dying of the Light," after Bellamy's death and Madi's departure, Clarke's worsening post-traumatic stress causes her to ignore Jordan's beliefs of the "Test" that can lead to Transcendence and express her hatred towards Bellamy, claiming that he died because Bellamy believed in that "crap" and that she heard enough. Clarke refers the "crap" to "The Last War."

In "The Last War," after meeting with the Judge, Clarke is still unrepentant about her murder during the Test, suggesting that she still suffered from the PTSD. However, after seeing her group being happy in peace, Clarke begins a new life with them on Earth. This suggests that Clarke will overcome her post-traumatic stress and be able to recover from her years of tragedy, since her friends are now at peace on Earth, which is now a habitable planet.

Radiation Poisoning

Maya dies from radiation poisoning.

Radiation poisoning is a condition caused by exposure to radiation. The severity of the condition is dependent on the level of radiation exposure, but it can be lethal with high levels and can lead to a prolonged death. Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) is a type of radiation poisoning.

In "Human Trials," Maya Vie is deliberately exposed to radiation by Cage Wallace and Dr. Lorelei Tsing in order to test a possible treatment using Jasper Jordan's blood. The treatment works and Maya recovers.

In "Rubicon," Bellamy Blake, on the direction of Dante Wallace, purposefully irradiates Level 5, causing Tsing and 14 Mount Weather Guards to quickly succumb to radiation poisoning.

In "Blood Must Have Blood (Part 2)," Bellamy and Clarke Griffin with the help of Monty Green irradiate Level 5, once again, killing all of the Mountain Men aside from Cage and Carl Emerson who have both taken the bone marrow treatment that renders them immune to the radiation.

In "The Four Horsemen," Floukru gets ARS from eating irradiated fish. All but Luna die from it with Luna recovering only due to her Nightblood.

In "The Chosen" and "Praimfaya," Clarke Griffin suffers from radiation poisoning after giving up her radiation suit's helmet to Emori. Clarke's Nightblood eventually allows her to recover.

In "False Gods," John Murphy and Emori both develop radiation poisoning while fixing Sanctum's nuclear reactor as do Hatch and the other Eligius prisoners working on the cooling system. Though Raven expected them to only become sick for a few days, the radiation levels prove to be lethal and she chooses to lie to the prisoners who succumb one by one, though Hatch finishes the job at the last second with Murphy's help.

In "Welcome to Bardo," Murphy and Emori, who are both Nightbloods, recover from their radiation poisoning with the help of Eric Jackson. However, Emori takes longer to recover than Murphy causing Jackson to explain that "recovery from radiation exposure doesn't always progress in a straight line" and that Emori will be fine with enough time. She later fully recovers.

In "Anaconda," Tristan, a young Second Dawn cultist, suffers a leak in his radiation suit two years after the Nuclear Apocalypse and as a result, contracts terminal radiation sickness. Upon seeing this, Becca Franko injects Tristan with her Nightblood serum and he is eventually able to recover when Tristan should have died.

Hythylodium sickness

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A lung disease caused by long exposure to hythylodium. The prisoners from Eligius IV got it from their mining operations, causing them to be abandoned by the Eligius Corporation before their mutiny. It is shown to cause multiple abscesses on the lungs.

Throughout Season Five, the prisoners suffer from the illness, becoming worse and worse over time. In "How We Get to Peace," Doctor Abigail Griffin discovers a treatment while examining Michael Vinson when one of his abscesses suddenly breaks up. Abby realizes that sound waves break up the abscesses and enlists the help of Raven Reyes to build a device to treat the illness. Charmaine Diyoza initially has Abby hide the treatment from Paxton McCreary, but he finds out in "Sic Semper Tyrannis." In "Damocles (Part 1)," Abby finishes treating all of the prisoners.

Hemorrhagic Fever

A virus used as a weapon by the Grounders to soften the battlefield. There is no cure, but its not always fatal and can be recovered from. Lincoln states to Octavia that "the sickness passes quickly. Few are immune. We use it to soften the battlefield."

Murphy is infected with the Hemorrhagic fever.

In "I Am Become Death," the Grounders use the virus on the Delinquents to "soften the battlefield" prior to engaging with footmen for hand-to-hand combat. The Grounders infected John Murphy with it and let him escape from their prison camp. Murphy returned to the Delinquents' Camp and infected the Delinquents, causing at least three known deaths. The surviving Delinquents were able to recover on their own and prevented the intended Grounder attack by blowing up the bridge they were crossing.

Wound Infection

Typically caused by bacteria getting into a wound, infection can set it and it can become fatal if not properly treated. Over time, it can also progress into septic shock.

In "Earth Kills," Jasper Jordan's spear wound becomes infected and Clarke Griffin tries to treat it by cutting away the infected tissue around the wound. When that fails to stop the infection, she creates a tea out of the seaweed the Grounders use in poultices, successfully allowing Jasper to fight off the infection and survive.

In "Etherea," Bellamy treats Conductor Doucette's broken leg with tree sap, explaining that Charles Pike had taught him that oozing sap from pine trees on Earth can be used to create antiseptic, fight infection and heal wounds. Bellamy expresses hope that the same goes for the trees on Etherea which proves to be the case as Doucette ultimately recovers.

Ankovirus

The Ankovirus Outbreak was seen in the news.

The Ankovirus is new type of disease that is discovered in Russia.

On the eve of the Nuclear Apocalypse, its mentioned that a public health alert has been declared due to an Ankovirus outbreak that originated in Russia.

It is unknown if the victims of the Ankovirus were killed or not when they are sick and infected.

Red Sun Toxin

Main article: Red Sun Eclipse

The canister contains the Red Sun toxin.

The Red Sun Toxin is a dangerous toxin that is released from the plants and trees into the air on Sanctum, during the Red Sun Eclipse.

Treatments and Drugs

Algae

Main article: Algae

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The algae grown by Monty Green is shown to have some medicinal properties with an earlier strain putting people into a coma for a week. However, this could also be used as a form of anesthesia for surgery as seen in "Sanctum."

Monty's algae was also able to fix the Second Dawn Bunker's hydrofarm which had been destroyed by a fungus.

Anesthesia

A sedative used to keep someone unconscious, generally during surgery. In "Pilot," Abby Griffin used too much while operating on Chancellor Thelonious Jaha and was nearly floated for it before Jaha pardoned her.

Blood Transfusion

The act of transfusing the blood of another into someone. The donor and the recipient must both be compatible or the blood transfusion can have negative effects on the recipient. As part of their Harvest Project, the Mountain Men of Mount Weather use blood transfusions from captured Grounders in an effort to find a solution to their inability to leave the mountain due to their lack of immunity to the radiation outside. In an exchange transfusion, the blood of two people is exchange through tubes, effectively giving each other their blood.

In "Pilot," Abby Griffin uses blood transfusions while treating Chancellor Thelonious Jaha's gunshot wound. As with the anesthesia, Abby uses too much blood per the Ark's rules and was nearly floated for it before Jaha pardoned her.

In "Human Trials," Dr. Lorelei Tsing and Cage Wallace get Jasper Jordan to agree to an exchange transfusion in order to save Maya Vie's life after she gets lethal radiation poisoning.

In "Perverse Instantiation (Part 2)," Clarke Griffin has her mother set up an exchange transfusion with Ontari so that she can make use of the brain dead young woman's Nightblood to use the Flame and destroy A.L.I.E. When Ontari begins crashing, the transfusion starts to fail, forcing John Murphy to manually pump Ontari's heart to keep it going long enough for Clarke to destroy the AI.

In "Sanctum," Abby has all of the surviving Sky People awakened to get enough blood transfusions to help her save Marcus Kane.

In "A Sort of Homecoming," Sheidheda appears to be hooked up to a blood transfusion while talking with Bill Cadogan, who also says that medicine on Bardo is incredible.

Chloroform

An organic compound used both as an anesthetic and for criminal use, typically knocking out a kidnapped victim.

In "Die All, Die Merrily," Bellamy Blake is chloroformed in order to be dragged into the Second Dawn Bunker against his will.

In "How We Get to Peace," Bellamy and Clarke Griffin use chloroform to knock out Kara Cooper as part of their plan to kill her using the parasite worms and make it look like an accident.

Coagulant

A substance used to help blood clot. Lincoln keeps some in his med kit along with the poison and its antidote.

In "Contents Under Pressure," though not identified as such, the coagulant from Lincoln's med kit is seen as Clarke Griffin tries to find the poison antidote to save Finn Collins.

In "We Are Grounders (Part 2)," Finn seeks out Lincoln's help after Raven Reyes is shot by John Murphy in order to use his coagulant to stop Raven's bleeding and save her life. Lincoln accompanies Finn back to help against the Grounder army and Clarke is able to inject Raven with it as chaos erupts, saving her life for the time being.

In "The 48," Lincoln mentions to Octavia that he can't treat her poisoned wound since he gave his med kit to Finn to save Raven.

Defibrillator

A Defibrillator is a portable medical device use to shock a person's heart usually when they've gone into cardiac arrest to save their life. The rocket in Becca's lab had one in its portable med kit.

In "Long Into an Abyss," Abby Griffin uses a shock baton as a makeshift defibrillator on Lincoln.

In "The Other Side," Raven retrieves the defibrillator from the med kit as part of her plan to purge A.L.I.E.'s residual code by "rebooting" her brain. Raven tells her hallucination of Jacapo Sinclair that she has calibrated the shock that will be given to restart her heart based on the defibrillator from the rocket. Sinclair reminds Raven that with her heart murmur, she may go into cardiac arrest from shocking her heart in such a way and will have to deliver another shock to restore a normal rhythm. Sure enough, after Raven is revived, she begins going into cardiac arrest, but manages to reach the defibrillator in time to shock herself again, returning her heartbeat to normal.

In "The Last War," Raven uses a defibrillator to revive Emori.

Delactivene

A drug that can help treat radiation poisoning, but only if administered within the first 24 hours.

In "The Four Horsemen," Abby Griffin and Eric Jackson attempt to use delactivene to treat Floukru even though there's no guarantee it will work given how much time it has been. Raven Reyes, pointing out how much they will need the drug over the next five years, refuses to give any of it up, but it is stolen by John Murphy. The two try delactivene on Adria, but it fails to work and Adria dies. Abby subsequently returns the remainder of the drug to Raven, but the fact that Luna recovered when they didn't try delactivene on her causes Abby to realize that Luna's Nightblood saved her.

Dialysis

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A process used to remove toxins from a person's kidneys when their body is unable to do it naturally, usually due to injury.

In "Sic Semper Tyrannis," Eric Jackson is able to wake Octavia Blake from her coma by using dialysis to pump the toxin from her system.

In "The Gospel of Josephine," one of the problems facing Abby Griffin with saving Marcus Kane's life is that his kidneys have shut down and he needs full hemodialysis for starters. Abby wants to try a different kind of dialysis, but Jackson points out that Kane's abdominal wounds prevent that. Josephine Lightbourne, posing as Clarke Griffin, uses her experience as a biologist to offer Abby an alternative using a Sanctum insect. However, the procedure that Abby comes up with still won't work as it will take at least 15 hours and Kane only has 10 minutes at most once he is removed from his cryopod.

Drug detoxification

Drug detoxification (informally, detox) is variously the intervention in a case of physical dependence to a drug; the process and experience of a withdrawal syndrome; and any of various treatments for acute drug overdose.

Clarke used the detox on Abby to cure her drug overdose.

Ice Bath

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A treatment devised by Raven Reyes to cure the condition that she and Abigail Griffin had gotten from having remnants of A.L.I.E.'s code in their head. Eric Jackson refers to it as the ice bath in "Red Queen."

In "The Other Side," a hallucination of Jacapo Sinclair inspires Raven to seek a cure for her condition by "rebooting" her brain. As this requires Raven's heart to be stopped for 15 minutes, she comes up with the idea of using an ice bath to stop her heart while the cold protects her brain function so that she won't be left brain damaged or dead. Wearing an oxygen mask so that she doesn't drown, Raven attaches a wire to her chest to deliver a shock calibrated using a defibrillator with a timer set for 15 minutes once her heart stops. The treatment works and A.L.I.E.'s residual code is purged, ending Raven's seizures and allowing her brain to heal itself.

In "Red Queen," Jackson mentions that Abby took the treatment as well, Abby having been informed of it by Raven in "The Chosen."

Lake Seaweed

A seaweed used by the Grounders in a poultice due to its antibiotic properties.

In "Earth Skills," a Grounder that captured Jasper Jordan places a poultice with the seaweed on Jasper's spear wound after cauterizing it. The combination keeps him alive long enough for his friends to rescue him, but fails to prevent infection.

In "Earth Kills," Clarke Griffin takes apart the poultice, believing that whatever's in it can be used to treat Jasper's infection in the form of a tea. Wells Jaha identifies it as seaweed and Finn Collins leads Clarke and Wells to a nearby river. Clarke recovers the seaweed and after a night avoiding Acid Fog, creates a tea with it. The seaweed helps Jasper to fight off the infection and he survives.

In "The Calm," Finn suggests using the seaweed to treat Tris' injuries, but Clarke refuses as she knows that it won't work.

Morphine

A drug used to numb pain which can also act as a narcotic and become addicting. During "Murphy's Law," Abby Griffin trades some to Nygel for a pressure regulator and is arrested for it.

Nightblood

Main article: Nightblood

Radiation Immunity

In general, having Nightblood enables a person to recover from radiation poisoning. In "The Four Horsemen," though Luna got sick with Acute Radiation Syndrome, a form of radiation poisoning, her Nightblood enabled her to recover on her own. In "The Chosen," Clarke Griffin similarly got sick, but eventually recovered due to her own Nightblood. In "False Gods," both John Murphy and Emori suffered radiation poisoning from fixing a melting down nuclear reactor to the point that it was lethal to four Eligius prisoners without Nightblood. In "Welcome to Bardo," both recover due to their Nightblood with the help of medical treatment from Doctor Eric Jackson though Emori takes longer.

As seen in "Anaconda," injecting a person with Nightblood is an effective treatment to radiation poisoning. Even if the case is terminal, being given Nightblood allows the person to recover from the effects.

Tree Sap

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After a Temporal Flare, the sap in the remains of fossilized trees becomes "mutated". When applied to the skin, it causes a time dilation effect – wounds heal faster, but it causes accelerated aging (caused by exposure to a Temporal Flare). Gabriel Santiago called the bottled sap, "Time in a Bottle."

In "Etherea," Bellamy treats Conductor Doucette's broken leg with tree sap, explaining that Charles Pike had taught him that oozing sap from pine trees on Earth can be used to create antiseptic, fight infection and heal wounds. Bellamy expresses hope that the same goes for the trees on Etherea which proves to be the case as Doucette ultimately recovers.

Sedative

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Referred to by Eric Jackson as a "reaper stick" is a sedative used by the Sky People to sedate an individual.

Gallery

References

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